18 Upgrade

When Clixon starts, the backend reads a startup configuration (see startup modes) parses it, checks for upgrades, and validates the configuration. It can also add extra XML, outside of the normal startup. On errors, it can enter a failsafe mode.

Clixon has three upgrade methods:

  • General-purpose datastore upgrade.

  • Module-specific manual upgrade

  • Automatic upgrade (experimental)

18.1 General-purpose

A plugin registers a ca_datastore_upgrade function which gets called once on startup. This upgrade should be seen as a generic wrapper function to basic repair or upgrade of existing datastores. The module-specific upgrade callbacks are more fine-grained.

The general-purpose upgrade callback is usable if module-state is not available, or actions such as the following need to be done in the whole datastore:

  • Remove or rename nodes

  • Rename namespaces

  • Add nodes

A recommended method, as shown in the example, is to make a pattern matching using XPath and then perform actions on the resulting nodes.


static clixon_plugin_api api = {

/*! General-purpose datastore upgrade callback called once on startup
 * @param[in] h    Clicon handle
 * @param[in] db   Name of datastore, eg "running", "startup" or "tmp"
 * @param[in] xt   XML tree. Upgrade this "in place"
 * @param[in] msd  Info on datastore module-state, if any
example_upgrade(clixon_handle h,
                char         *db,
                cxobj        *xt,
                modstate_diff_t *msd)
    cxobj   **xvec = NULL;   /* vector of result nodes */
    size_t    xlen;
    cvec     *nsc = NULL;    /* Canonical namespace */
    int       i;

    /* Skip other than startup datastore */
    if (strcmp(db, "startup") != 0)
       return 0;
    /* Skip if there is proper module-state in datastore */
    if (msd->md_status)
       return 0;
    /* Get canonical namespaces for using "normalized" prefixes */
    if (xml_nsctx_yangspec(yspec, &nsc) < 0)
    /* Get all xml nodes matching path */
    if (xpath_vec(xt, nsc, "/a:x/a:y", &xvec, &xlen) < 0)
    /* Iterate through nodes and remove them */
    for (i=0; i<xlen; i++){
       if (xml_purge(xvec[i]) < 0)

The example above first checks whether it is the startup datastore and that it does not contain module-state. It then matches all nodes matching the XPath /a:x/a:y using canonical prefixes, which are then deleted.

18.2 Module-specific upgrade

Module-specific upgrade is only available if module-state is enabled, see Module library support.

If the module-state of the startup configuration does not match the module-state of the backend daemon, a set of module-specific upgrade callbacks are made. This allows a user to program upgrade funtions in the backend plugins to automatically upgrade the XML to the current version.

A user registers upgrade callbacks per YANG module. A user can register many callbacks, or choose wildcards. When an upgrade occurs, the callbacks will be called if they match the module and the modules have changed.

A module has changed if one of the following is true: - A module present in the startup is no longer present in the system (DEL) - A module in the system is not present in the startup (ADD) - A module present in both the startup and the system has a different revision date (CHANGE)

18.2.1 Registering a callback

A user registers upgrade callbacks in the backend clixon_plugin_init() function. The signature of upgrade callback is as follows:

upgrade_callback_register(h, cb, ns, arg);


  • h is the Clicon handle,

  • cb is the name of the callback function,

  • ns defines the namespace of a Yang module. NULL denotes all modules.

  • arg is a user defined argument which can be passed to the callback.

One example of registering an upgrade of an interface module:

upgrade_callback_register(h, upgrade_interfaces, "urn:example:interfaces", NULL);

18.2.2 Upgrade callback

When Clixon loads a startup datastore with outdated modules, the matching upgrade callbacks will be called.

The signature of an upgrade callback is as follows:

int upgrade_interfaces(h, xt, ns, op, from, to, arg, cbret)


  • xt is the XML tree to be upgraded

  • ns is the namespace of the YANG module.

  • op is a flag indicating upgrading operation, one of: XML_FLAG_ADD, XML_FLAG_DEL, XML_FLAG_CHANGE. Note that this applies to per-module: whether a module has been added, deleted or changed.

  • from is the revision date in the startup file of the module. It is zero if the operation is ADD

  • to is the revision date of the YANG module in the system. It is zero if the operation is DEL

If no action is made by the upgrade callback, and thus the XML is not upgraded, the next step is XML/Yang validation.

An out-dated XML may still pass validation and the system will go up in normal state.

However, if the validation fails, the backend will try to enter the failsafe mode so that the user may perform manual upgrading of the configuration.

18.2.3 Example upgrade

The Clixon main example shows code for upgrading of an interface module. The example is inspired by the ietf-interfaces module that made a subset of the upgrades shown in the examples.

The code is split in two steps. The upgrade_2014_to_2016 callback does the following transforms:

  • Move /if:interfaces-state/if:interface/if:admin-status to /if:interfaces/if:interface/

  • Move /if:interfaces-state/if:interface/if:statistics to if:interfaces/if:interface/

  • Rename /interfaces/interface/description to /interfaces/interface/descr

The upgrade_2016_to_2018 callback does the following transforms:
  • Delete /if:interfaces-state

  • Wrap /interfaces/interface/descr to /interfaces/interface/docs/descr

  • Change type /interfaces/interface/statistics/in-octets to decimal64 and divide all values with 1000

18.3 Extra XML

If the Yang validation succeeds and the startup configuration has been committed to the running database, a user may add “extra” XML.

There are two ways to add extra XML to running database after start. Note that this XML is “merged” into running, not “committed”.

The extra-xml feature is not available if startup mode is none. It will also not occur in failsafe mode.

18.3.1 Via file

The first way is via a file. Assume you want to add this xml:

  <x xmlns="urn:example:clixon">extra</x>

You add this via the -c option:

clixon_backend ... -c extra.xml

18.3.2 Reset callback

The second way is by programming the plugin_reset() in the backend plugin. The following code illustrates how to do this (see also example_reset() in example_backend.c):

example_reset(clixon_handle h,
              const char   *db)
   cxobj *xt = NULL;
   yang_stmt *yspec;

   yspec = clicon_dbspec_yang(h);
   /* Parse extra XML */
   if (clixon_xml_parse_string("<x xmlns=\"urn:example:clixon\">extra</x>"
                             YB_MODULE, yspec, &xt, NULL) < 0)
   xml_name_set(xt, "config");
   /* Write to db */
   if (xmldb_put(h, (char*)db, OP_MERGE, xt, NULL, NULL) < 0)
static clixon_plugin_api api = {

The example_reset function is registered in the plugin init code and is then called with an empty temp database (db). The code writes the extra XML into db (xmldb_put).

After exit of the callback, the system merges the temporary db into the running datastore in the same way as via file, ie not via a commit.

18.4 Failsafe mode

If the startup fails, the backend looks for a failsafe configuration in <CLICON_XMLDB_DIR>/failsafe_db. If such a config is not found, the backend terminates. In this mode, running and startup mode are unchanged.

If the failsafe is found, the running-db is copied to tmp-db and the failsafe config is loaded and committed into the running db.

If the startup mode was startup, the startup database will contain syntax errors or invalidated XML.

If the startup mode was running, the the tmp database will contain syntax errors or invalidated XML.

18.5 Repair

If the system is in failsafe mode (or fails to start), a user can repair a broken configuration and then restart the backend. This can be done out-of-band by editing the startup db and then restarting clixon.

In some circumstances, it is also possible to repair the startup configuration on-line without restarting the backend. This section shows how to repair a startup datastore on-line.

However, on-line repair cannot be made in the following circumstances:

  • The broken configuration contains syntactic errors - the system cannot parse the XML.

  • The startup mode is running. In this case, the broken config is in the tmp datastore that is not a recognized Netconf datastore, and has to be accessed out-of-band.

  • Netconf must be used. Restconf cannot separately access the different datastores.

First, copy the (broken) startup config to candidate. This is necessary since you cannot make edit-config calls to the startup db:

<rpc xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:netconf:base:1.0">

You can now edit the XML in candidate. However, there are some restrictions on the edit commands. For example, you cannot access invalid XML (eg that does not have a corresponding module) via the edit-config operation. For example, assume x is obsolete syntax, then this is not accepted:

<rpc xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:netconf:base:1.0">
      <x xmlns="example" operation='delete'/>

Instead, assuming y is a valid syntax, the following operation is allowed since x is not explicitly accessed:

<rpc xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:netconf:base:1.0">
    <config operation='replace'>
      <y xmlns="example"/>

Finally, the candidate is validate and committed:

<rpc xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:netconf:base:1.0">

The example shown in this Section is also available as a regression repair test script.

18.6 Automatic upgrades

There is an EXPERIMENTAL xml changelog feature based on “draft-wang-netmod-module-revision-management-01” (Zitao Wang et al) where changes to the Yang model are documented and loaded into Clixon. The implementation is not complete.

When upgrading, the system parses the changelog and tries to upgrade the datastore automatically. This feature is experimental and has several limitations.

You enable the automatic upgrading by registering the changelog upgrade method in clixon_plugin_init() using wildcards:

upgrade_callback_register(h, xml_changelog_upgrade, NULL, 0, 0, NULL);

The transformation is defined by a list of changelogs. Each changelog defined how a module (defined by a namespace) is transformed from an old revision to a new. Example from auto upgrade test script:

<changelogs xmlns="http://clicon.org/xml-changelog">

Each changelog consists of set of (ordered) steps:


Each step has an (atomic) operation:

  • rename - Rename an XML tag

  • replace - Replace the content of an XML node

  • insert - Insert a new XML node

  • delete - Delete and existing node

  • move - Move a node to a new place

A step has the following arguments:

  • where - An XPath node-vector pointing at a set of target nodes. In most operations, the vector denotes the target node themselves, but for some operations (such as insert) the vector points to parent nodes.

  • when - A boolean XPath determining if the step should be evaluated for that (target) node.

Extended arguments:

  • tag - XPath string argument (rename)

  • new - XML expression for a new or transformed node (replace, insert)

  • dst - XPath node expression (move)

Step summary:

  • rename(where:targets, when:bool, tag:string)

  • replace(where:targets, when:bool, new:xml)

  • insert(where:parents, when:bool, new:xml)

  • delete(where:parents, when:bool)

  • move(where:parents, when:bool, dst:node)