4   Standards

4.1   YANG

YANG and XML are central to Clixon. Yang modules are used as a specification for encoding XML or JSON configuration and state data. The YANG spec is also used to generate an interactive CLI, NETCONF and RESTCONF clients, as well as the format of the XML datastore.

The YANG standards that Clixon follows include:

Clixon deviates from the YANG standard as follows (reference to RFC7950 sections in parenthesis):

Not implemented:

  • action (7.15)
  • augment in a uses sub-clause (7.17) (module-level augment is implemented)
  • instance-identifier type (9.13)
  • status (7.21.2)
  • YIN (13)
  • Default values on leaf-lists (7.7.2)
  • error-message is not implemented as sub-statement of “range”, “length” and “pattern”


Clixon supports the following extended XPath functions (10):

  • current()
  • deref()
  • derived-from(),
  • derived-from-or-self()
  • bit-is-set()
  • The following extended XPath functions are not supported (10):

    • re-match()
    • enum-value()

See also support of standard XPath functions XML and XPath

  • if-feature-expr() is restricted to single layer expressions with and/or (7.20.2):
    • x and y and x or y is supported
    • x or (not y and z) is not supported

4.1.1   Regular expressions

Clixon supports two regular expression engines:

The default method, The regexps:s are translated to posix before matching with the standard Linux regex engine. This translation is not complete but can be considered “good-enough” for most yang use-cases. For reference, all standard Yang models have been tested.
Libxml2 uses the XSD regex engine. This is a complete XSD engine but you need to compile and link with libxml2 which may add overhead.

To use libxml2 in clixon you need enable libxml2 in both cligen and clixon:

./configure --with-libxml2 # both cligen and clixon

You then need to set the following configure option:



Clixon implements the following NETCONF RFC:s:

The following RFC6241 capabilities/features are hardcoded in Clixon:

  • :candidate (RFC6241 8.3)
  • :validate (RFC6241 8.6)
  • :xpath (RFC6241 8.9)
  • :notification (RFC5277)

The following features are optional and can be enabled by setting CLICON_FEATURE:

  • :startup (RFC6241 8.7)
  • :writable-running (RFC6241 8.2) - just write to running, no commit semantics

Clixon does not support the following NETCONF features:

  • :url capability
  • copy-config source config
  • edit-config testopts
  • edit-config erropts
  • edit-config config-text
  • edit-config operation

Further, in get-config filter expressions, the RFC6241 XPath Capability is preferred over default subtrees. This has two reasons:

  1. XPath has better performance since the underlying system uses xpath, and subtree filtering is done after the complete tree is retrieved.
  2. Subtree filtering does not support namespaces yet.

Clixon supports netconf locks in default settings but not if CLICON_DATASTORE_CACHE is nocache mode.

4.2.1   Default values

Clixon only stores explicit set default values in datastores, while unset values are populated in memory on retrieval. This means that get-config will report all default values, not only those explicitly set.

RFC 6243: With-defaults Capability for NETCONF is not implemented. Among the modes described in the RFC, Clixon implements “report-all” with-respect to get and get-config operations, but “explicit” with respect to how configurations are saved in datastores.


Clixon supports the two RESTCONF compile-time variants: FCGI and Native. Both implements RFC 8040: RESTCONF Protocol.

The following features of RFC8040 are supported:

  • Stream notifications (Sec 6)
  • Query parameters: insert, point, content, depth, start-time and stop-time.
  • Monitoring (Sec 9)

The following features are not implemented:

  • ETag/Last-Modified
  • Query parameters: fields, filter, with-defaults

RESTCONF event notification as described in RFC7950 section 6 is supported as follows:

  • is not supported by native
  • is supported by FCGI

NMDA is partly supported according to RFC 8324 and RFC 8527. With-defaults and with-origin are not implemented.

RFC 8072: YANG Patch Media Type is not implemented.

In the native mode, Clixon also supports:

  • HTTP/1.1 as transport using a native implementation (RFC 7230),
  • HTTP/2 as transport implemented by libnghttp2 (RFC7540),
  • Transport Layer Security (TLS) implemented by libopenssl,
  • ALPN as defined in RFC 7301 for http/1, http/2 protocol selection by libopenssl

4.4   XML and XPath

Clixon has its own implementation of XML and XPath. See more in the detailed API reference.

The XML-related standards include:

Clixon XML supports version and UTF-8 only.

The following XPath axes are supported:

  • child,
  • descendant,
  • descendant-or-self,
  • self
  • parent

The following xpath axes are not supported: preceding, preceding_sibling, namespace, following_sibling, following, ancestor,ancestor_or_self, and attribute

The following XPath functions as defined in Section 2.3 / 4 of the XPath 1.0 standard are supported:

  • contains()
  • count()
  • false()
  • name()
  • node()
  • not()
  • position()
  • text()
  • true()

The following standard XPath functions are not supported:

  • boolean
  • ceiling
  • comment
  • concat
  • floor
  • id
  • lang
  • last
  • local-name
  • namespace-uri
  • normalize-space
  • number
  • processing-instructions
  • round
  • starts-with
  • string
  • substring
  • substring-after
  • substring-before
  • sum
  • translate

4.6   Unicode

Unicode is not supported in YANG and XML.